IN MEMORIAM—PHILIP BAKER (1940-2017): So Kontribision pou Kreol Morisien Lang Standar

Dan bann lane 1960, enn zenn Angle debark Moris pou travay volonter pou enn lorganizasion internasional. So premie priorite, se aprann kreol Moris pou li kapav kominike. Li gagn kontak avek enn Morisien, Nitia Nadar, ki vinn so profeser. Dezan apre, an 1967, alor ki Moris pe prepar li pou lindepandans, Philip Baker retourn Langleter avek enn bon bagaz kreol Morisien. Sink an apre, li piblie premie gramer linguistik pou Kreol Morisien: “KREOL – A Description of Mauritian Creole”.
Dan so lintrodiksion, li ekrir:
This book results from several years’ interest in Kreol. It began as a series of notes made while learning to speak this language in the period 1965-7 when the author was living in the island.
Li dir ladan ki dabor li ti anvi produir enn gramer pedagozik sinp pou ed bann etranze dan Moris aprann Kreol. Me sa kantite materio ki li’nn ramase pandan so sezour finn kree enn lintere dan sians langaz, setadir Linguistik, ki ti pe koumans etidie dan bann liniversite. Ala kimanier li desid pou konpoz enn gramer referans pou Kreol Morisien, e li explike ki mo prinsipal dan so tit – KREOL – reprezant lang-la, pou evit konfizion avek ‘creole’ ki reprezant enn seksion popilasion.
Parmi bann lobzektif so liv, li bon fer resortir enn ki met lanfaz deza lor linportans Kreol dan lekol:
To provide some of the information required for the preparation of school courses in languages and other subjects designed specifically for the Kreol-speaking child, especially at the primary school level.
An 1972-73, ler Philip retourn Moris, so liv ti deza koni, e lagazet Cernéen ti fer enn lartik, an angle, pou montre so valer:
“a very comprehensive study and detailed analysis of the local patois (sic)”.
“an original work which comes at the right time and answers a long-felt need”.
“the work commends itself to the linguist, the philologist, be they Mauritian or foreign; to the teacher in the preparation of school courses(…); to the average Mauritian, who may learn from this book many things of which he is probably not aware about the language which he either uses everyday or hears around him”.
“(…) it can be of considerable help to foreign visitors who want to acquire a working knowledge of the local patois (sic) – which would make their stay among us more interesting in more than one way”. (Le Cernéen, 20 septam 1973)
Kan lartik-la dir ki sa liv-la pou bien itil pou bann viziter, li ti ena rezon parski dan sa mem period-la, MCA (Mauritius College of the Air, ki zordi inn absorbe par Open University) dimann Philip prepar enn « Correspondence Course in Mauritian Kreol » ki finn bien rann servis parski enn deziem edision ti piblie ver 1984. MCA ti enn institision gouvernman kree pou devlop distance education. Sa montre enn rekonesans ofisiel valer Kreol ek metod Philip Baker dan domenn formasion-a-distans.
Ant 1965 ek 1975 sirtou, kan Philip revini, li ti deza kree enn database ase fourni pou lans enn gran proze diksioner Kreol-Angle-Franse. Enn rezo informater ek kolaborater – parmi ti ena mwa – finn rant dan sa proze-la pou kontinie alimant li mem kan Philip pa ti la. Sa fer mwa rapel mouvman etidian Me 75, ki ti deklans enn lenerzi extraordiner otour rekonesans ek promosion lang kreol-lang morisien.
Ariv 1978. Tou ti paret pe al dan lord, travay lor enn nouvo proze lortograf ti pe progrese. Lerla, enn kout an tret, gouvernman sa lepok-la donn lord Philip pou kit Moris dan lespas 48 er, san donn okenn explikasion.  Enn semenn apre so depar, Le Mauricien, 23 septam 1978, pibliy enn lartik lor sa nouvo proze lortograf Kreol morisien ek mansionn expilsion Philip, san okenn komanter, pou dir ki :
« Avant d’être expulsé, la semaine dernière, par le gouvernement mauricien, M. Philip Baker qui faisait des recherches sur la population mauricienne (…), travaillait sur un dictionnaire Kreol – français et – Kreol – anglais d’un millier de pages ».
Expilsion. Enn aksion represif brit, brital, pou kas lelan enn travay akademik, siantifik, e sirtou kolektif, parski enn diksioner par definision li enn proze kolektif  ki konsern langaz, e langaz li pa propriete enn dimounn, li pou la kominote linguistik ki servi ek nouri li. Rezo otour proze diksioner inn reponn prezan, e Philip ek mwa nou’nn tini labar par korespondans.
Nou’nn tom dakor lor proze lortograf-linite. Nou ti donn li sa nom-la parski li ti pou permet transkrir Kreol Morisien ek Bhojpouri Moris e osi bann lezot lang Kreol Losean Indien.
Diksyoner Kreol Morisyen avek lantre an Kreol ek definision an Angle-Franse piblie an 1987.
Avek so gramer an 1972, lortograf-linite an 1978 ek diksioner an 1987, fondasion Kreol Morisien an tan ki lang standar premie zenerasion ti fini kree, gras-a Philip Baker. Nou rann li omaz, avek respe ek rekonesans.