It is largely believed that technology (in particular Information and Communication Technology) will bring about the desired learning outcomes and that students will develop conceptual understanding of themes. In schools, this view has given way to an understanding of ICT as being an enchanted means for students to acquire knowledge. Though ICT has been critical in opening access and opportunities to information and knowledge, its use in schools has been limited to the bare minimum – PowerPoint.  I do not consider that using PowerPoint necessarily makes of our class an ICT-driven one.  Technically, there is no difference between a PowerPoint presentation (of a lesson) and the dictation of notes, as is most often the case in our schools. There is a need to demarcate between access to information (whether PowerPoint or digital materials) and knowledge construction and skills development.
Many researches have shown that ICT can be integrated in a system on the express condition that a technology paradigm that incorporates inquiry, critical thinking, problem-solving, creativity and values is adopted. Technology should be the vehicle for helping teachers to create the adequate learning environment to enable learners to construct knowledge as well as develop the appropriate skills, as illustrated by the figure (based on our own team research):
What is important in the knowledge construction process is the interaction among a number of variables, such as contextual knowledge, pedagogy and technology.  Let me explain how each one should be locked into a single entity for learners to construct purposeful knowledge structures in their minds so that knowledge makes sense. Ideas (and not knowledge) that are disunited are meaningless and create confusion in the minds of learners and this further hinders acquisition of knowledge. This is what is presently happening in our society, where people are always prompt to ‘act’ without first ‘thinking’. And when the ‘thinking’ occurs, it is much too late.  Let me clearly explain the meaning of the three elements to clarify matters.