As knowledge of Ibn Khaldun’s work improved in the 19th and 20th centuries, he would be retrofi tted and appropriated as the founding father of modern economics, sociology and historiography. In 1981, Ronald Reagan quoted Ibn Khaldun in support of his view of “supply side economics”. Perhaps surprisingly, Mark Zuckerberg of Facebook selected the Muqaddima as one of his books of the year 2015, observing that “while much of what was believed then is now disproven after 700 more years of progress, it’s still very interesting to see what was understood at the time and the overall world view when it’s all considered together”.