Denise Phua, chairman of the Government Parliamentary Committee for Education, said: « Society — students, parents, educators and employers — had been conditioned for decades to rely on academic scores as the main success indicator in the education dashboard. Many do not understand that exams are only one form of assessment and being exam-smart alone does not equate learning, and certainly may not cultivate the habit of self-driven lifelong learning. » « International research evidence indicates that once private tutoring has become ingrained in the culture, it cannot easily be scaled back, » Timothy Chan, director of SIM Global Education’s academic division, said.